Minor / Major Head Injury

Minor Head Injury: Blunt and sharp blow to the head, usually causing minor injuries to the skin level or at the level of skull bone. May be cut the skin, subcutaneous edema, swelling, blood accumulation may be seen. Injuries affected the level of awareness at this level. The impact that violence is directly proportional to the severity of the injury. Trauma will affect the brain usually break the bones of the skull. These fractures usually occur in practice, with a shock of 200-400 kgs. or by cutting or penetrate instruments. Minor or mild head trauma may occur minimally headache, dizziness, may also be a feeling of nausea. In general, the table shows 24 hours recovery with medical treatment. Unless consciousness is not affected in patients with minor head injuries are said to show improvement.

Major Head Injury: In cases where the affected consciousness Sleeping (Somonlans) communicates to establish disorder (confusion), unconsciousness (Stupor), Semicoma and Deep Coma may be seen.


Linear / Displacement / Skull Base Fracture

Linear Fractures: Blunt and sharp blows to the skull bones can break with skin tear or not. The frontal bone, parietal bone, temporal bone, and occipital bone cracks can show linear fracture which is called like this. Compression Fractures: skull bones that we call inward displacement of the skull compression fracture.

Displacement Fractures: The bones of the skull when break off and leave out of the bone fracture called as displacement fracture. According to the shape of the collapse of this trauma and fracture displacement it is referred to as open or closed compression fracture. The risk of infection in open fractures collapse should be treated with surgery it is needed to clean immediately in case of injury. Closed compression fractures, can pressures on brain compression is treated surgically emergency or electively or follow-up.

Skull Base Fractures: Severe external shock that hit the power head in the skull can break the bottom of the skull base. In these cases the first signs may be a coma, or there may be bleeding from the nose and ears. In addition bloody or bloodless nose and ears Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) leak may occur. CSF leakage (rhinorrhea) is coming from the nose, CSF ear leaking is called as Otorhea. Both events also prepare the ground for the treatment against the risk of infection or meningitis is done carefully.


Concussion / Contusio Cerebri - Diffuse Axonal / Penetrating Head Injury

Concussion Cerebri: A concussion occurs when the head hits or is hit by an object, or when the brain is jarred against the skull, with sufficient force to cause temporary loss of function in the higher centers of the brain. The injured person may remain conscious or lose consciousness briefly, and is disoriented for some minutes after the blow. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 300,000 people sustain mild to moderate sports-related brain injuries each year, most of them young men between 16 and 25.

Cerebral Contusion: Latin contusio cerebri, a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue. Like bruises in other tissues, cerebral contusion can be associated with multiple microhemorrhages, small blood vessel leaks into brain tissue. Contusion occurs in 20–30% of severe head injuries. A cerebral laceration is a similar injury except that, according to their respective definitions, the pia-arachnoid membranes are torn over the site of injury in laceration and are not torn in contusion. The injury can cause a decline in mental function in the long term and in the emergency setting may result in brain herniation, a life-threatening condition in which parts of the brain are squeezed past parts of the skull. Thus treatment aims to prevent dangerous rises in intracranial pressure, the pressure within the skull.

Diffuse Axonal Injury: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a brain injury in which damage in the form of extensive lesions in white matter tracts occurs over a widespread area. DAI is one of the most common and devastating types of traumatic brain injury, and is a major cause of unconsciousness and persistent vegetative state after head trauma. It occurs in about half of all cases of severe head trauma.

The outcome is frequently coma, with over 90% of patients with severe DAI never regaining consciousness. Those who do wake up often remain significantly impaired.

DAI can occur in every degree of severity from very mild or moderate to very severe. Concussion may be a milder type of diffuse axonal injury.

Penetrating Head Injury: A penetrating head injury, or open head injury, is a head injury in which the dura mater, the outer layer of the meninges, is breached. Penetrating injury can be caused by high-velocity projectiles or objects of lower velocity such as knives, or bone fragments from a skull fracture that are driven into the brain. Head injuries caused by penetrating trauma are serious medical emergencies and may cause permanent disability or death.

A penetrating head injury involves "a wound in which an object breaches the cranium but does not exit it." In contrast, aperforating head injury is a wound in which the object passes through the head and leaves an exit wound.

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